基础指南

了解 elementary OS,如何在窗口与工作区之间切换,以及更多。

桌面

elementary OS 桌面包括两个元素:菜单和任务栏。你可以通过次要点击桌面来更改壁纸——鼠标右键,或者两指双击触摸板。你还可以在系统设置桌面来更改桌面的外观和行为。

菜单栏

位于桌面顶部的是菜单栏。左边是应用菜单,中间是日期与时间,最右侧是系统状态指示图标。

  1. 应用程序菜单
  2. 日期与时间
  3. 系统状态图标
菜单栏(Panel)

应用程序菜单

要打开或搜索已安装的应用,在菜单栏选择应用。你可以用鼠标滚轮滚动,两指在触摸板上轻划,或点击页面底部的指示点来翻页。你还可以使用顶部的按钮更换布局,如分类列表或网格型。

应用程序菜单

在应用菜单输入应用名称或关键词来开始。搜索也会显示应用功能和系统设置,比如你可以输入:

要通过键盘打开应用菜单,按下 空格

日期与时间

位于菜单栏中间的日期与时间指示器会显示当前的日期与时间。点击它来显示日历和稍后的事件。双击任一天或选中事件来在日历应用中打开。

系统状态图标

菜单栏右侧的系统状态指示图标显示设备当前的状态,例如:网络连接、电池、声音输入与输出、通知,等等。选中图标后可以展开更多信息与相关动作。

把鼠标指针悬停在指示标上时会显示快捷信息和鼠标中键或三指轻点快捷键的快捷键。例如:

程序坞

在桌面最底端是让你快捷打开已收藏应用与当前正在运行的应用的程序坞。

程序坞

要把应用添加到程序坞,从应用菜单里把它拖到这里或右键它的图标并选择保留在程序坞。要将它移除,把它拖到桌面空白地方或右键它并取消选择保留在程序坞即可。在程序坞上拖拽应用来重新排序。

默认情况下,程序坞会在应用最大化或与其重叠时隐藏。把光标移到桌面中间最下方来让它再次显示。

你可以在 系统设置桌面程序坞与菜单栏 里面个性化程序坞的大小与动作。

应用程序窗口

当你打开一个应用时,它的窗口会在桌面显示。虽然每个应用的设计可能不同,应用窗口大多数都可以被关闭,移动,缩放,以及最大化。

标题栏

大部分应用在顶端都会有标题栏,上面有窗口操作按钮和应用本身的行为和导航栏。

通过按住并拖动标题栏或按住AltF7并移动光标来拖动应用窗口。

标题栏

右键标题栏来快捷打开窗口和工作区动作。

窗口按钮

An app's window buttons are at the top corners of the app window: close at the left and maximize (if supported by the app) at the right. Closing a window will close that app; it can be re-opened from the Applications Menu or Dock. Maximizing a window resizes it to take up most of the desktop while retaining your access to the Panel and Dock.

You can also drag a window to the top of the desktop or double-click its header bar to maximize, and drag from the top or double-click the header bar to unmaximize.

Resizing

Most app windows can be resized by draging from any edge of the window. You can also secondary-click a window's header bar and choose Resize or press AltF8 to enter a resize mode: move the mouse cursor in the direction you want to resize the window.

Multitasking

elementary OS uses both windows and workspaces for multitasking.

Windows

App windows can overlap on your desktop and be moved around. You can switch between open windows several ways:

Workspaces

By default, app windows open on your current workspace. However, you can use multiple workspaces to organize your workflow:

Workspaces

To move left or right through your workspaces, press or or swipe with three fingers on a touchpad or touch screen.

Jump straight to a specific workspace by pressing 1 through 9. You can always jump to a new workspace with 0.

Move windows between workspaces by dragging them in the Multitasking View or by pressing Alt or .

Customize these shortcuts through System SettingsKeyboardShortcutsWorkspaces.

Some windows may also fullscreen onto a new workspace. You can move between workspaces as usual, and closing or un-fullscreening the app will return you to the previous workspace.

多任务视图

多任务视图

The Multitasking View shows all open windows and workspaces so you can switch between them. To open it, select the Multitasking View icon in the dock, press , or swipe up with three fingers on a touchpad or touch screen.

Gestures

elementary OS supports multi-touch gestures on supported hardware like touchpads and touch screens. By default, a three-finger swipe left or right switches workspaces while a three-finger swipe up enters the Multitasking View.

Modify gestures from System SettingsMouse & TouchpadGestures.

Hot Corners

Hot Corners are shortcuts activated by placing your cursor in the corner of the primary display. You can configure Hot Corners to activate multitasking actions like the window overview, workspace overview, and more.

你可以通过 系统设置桌面多任务 来自定义触发角。

多显示器

The Panel, Dock, and workspaces appear on the primary display. Any other attached displays act as standalone workspaces. To manage and rearrange displays, head to System SettingsDisplays. Your primary display is marked with a filled-in star () and each display's settings can be changed from its menu.

Installing Apps

elementary OS comes with AppCenter, the open, pay-what-you-can app store for indie developers. To install a new app:

  1. Open AppCenter
  2. Search in the top-right, or browse by category
  3. Select Free or the suggested price next to the app you want to install. To choose a different price, select the button and select or enter your own price.

Sideload

Some third-party software may not be available from AppCenter, especially if it is cross-platform and not designed for elementary OS. You can sideload Flatpak apps from third-party sources like Flathub: download and open a .flatpakref or .flatpak file, and the Sideload utility will install it for you. Updates to that app and other apps from the same source may then show up as non-curated in AppCenter.

Keep in mind that sideloaded and non-curated apps have not been reviewed by elementary for security or privacy.

Updating

AppCenter includes updates for apps and the operating system itself under the Installed tab. Remember to install updates frequently to get the latest features, fixes, and security improvements. For more information related to security patches, read the Ubuntu security notices.

System Settings

elementary OS comes with the System Settings app that helps you manage device settings and user preferences. System Settings enables you to adjust keyboard shortcuts, display resolution, your wallpaper, and more.

System Settings

You can find specific settings by typing in the search bar at the top of the window.

App Settings

Keep in mind that System Settings only deals with system-wide settings and user preferences for elementary OS. If an app offers settings or preferences, they will be exposed within the app itself.

Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts in elementary OS are generally exposed contextually in tooltips when hovering or context menus when secondary-clicking.

To view an overlay of desktop keyboard shortcuts, press the key.

Keyboard Shortcuts

Desktop keyboard shorcuts can be customized from the menu in the shortcuts overlay or in System SettingsKeyboardShortcuts.