基础指南

每个系统都可能会有一些你不熟悉的地方。这个指南将介绍如何完成简单的日常任务,如浏览网页和听音乐,以及其他您可能不知道的有用信息。

桌面

elementary OS 的桌面简单易学。它包含两大元素:顶栏(Panel)和 Dock(程序坞)。您可以在 系统设置桌面壁纸 中修改桌面壁纸。

顶栏(Panel)

顶栏(Panel)在桌面的顶部,其左侧是应用程序菜单,中间是时间和日期,右侧是托盘图标。

  1. 应用程序菜单
  2. 时间和日期
  3. 托盘图标
顶栏(Panel)

应用程序菜单

顶栏的左侧是应用程序菜单。点击 应用程序 按钮后,菜单将展示您电脑上安装的所有应用程序。您可以通过滚动或使用菜单底部的翻页按钮,在多个页面查看应用程序列表,也可以在菜单顶部切换到列表视图,按照分类来寻找应用程序。

应用程序菜单

您可以按名称或关键字搜索应用程序,并打开相应程序。您还可以搜索系统设置。您可以在搜索中找到的一些操作包括:

如果需要使用键盘来打开应用程序菜单,请按下 + 空格 键。

托盘图标

On the right side of the panel are icons called Indicators. These tell you of the current status of your session and device, i.e. network connections, battery, sound input and output, notifications, etc. Selecting an indicator exposes more information and related actions.

A middle click or three finger tap on an indicator will present you with the following quick actions:

The Dock

At the bottom of the desktop is the Dock. It contains your favorite apps well as any apps that are currently open.

The Dock

The contents of the dock are easily customizable. To add an app to the dock, drag and drop it from the Applications Menu or right-click an open app's icon and choose Keep in Dock. To remove an app from the dock, drag it off and drop it in an empty space on your desktop or right-click the icon and uncheck Keep in Dock. To rearrange apps on the dock, simply drag and drop them.

By default, the dock hides off the bottom of the desktop when an app is maximized. Simply move your mouse to the bottom center of the desktop to reveal the dock.

You can customize the dock's behavior through System SettingsDesktopDock.

App Windows

Apps exist in their own windows which can be closed, maximized, or moved around.

When you open an app, its window appears on the desktop. Each app typically has three areas: the window buttons, a toolbar, and the contents of the app.

Header Bar

Many apps have a Header Bar at the top of the app. This area contains common actions or navigation items for the app, plus the Window Buttons.

You can move an app's window around the desktop by dragging anywhere on the Header Bar, including on buttons.

HeaderBar

Window Buttons

An app's Window Buttons are at the top corners of the app window. The close button is on the left and the maximize button is on the right. Pressing the close button will close the app's window. Pressing the maximize button will toggle whether the app window takes up the full desktop or not. You can also drag a window to the top of the desktop or double-click its header bar to maximize, and drag from the top or double-click the header bar to unmaximize.

Multitasking

elementary OS supports two types of multitasking: windows and workspaces.

Windows

Apps open in app windows. They can overlap on your desktop and be moved around. You can switch between windows several ways:

You can customize these shortcuts through System SettingsKeyboardShortcutsWindows.

Hot Corners

You can also configure "hot corners" (shortcuts activated by placing your cursor in the corner of the display) to activate multitasking functions like the window overview, workspace overview, and more.

You can customize hot corners through System SettingsDesktopHot Corners.

Workspaces

By default, all app windows open on one workspace. However, you can use multiple workspaces to organize your workflow:

You can customize these shortcuts through System SettingsKeyboardShortcutsWorkspaces.

Some windows may also fullscreen onto a new workspace. You can move between workspaces as usual, and closing or un-fullscreening the app will return you to the previous workspace.

Note: refers to the "super" key. It is also known as the "Windows" key on most PCs or the "Command" key on Macs.

Multiple Displays

The panel, dock, and workspaces appear only on the primary display. Any other attached displays act as standalone workspaces. To manage and rearrange displays, head to System SettingsDisplays. Your primary display is marked with a filled-in star () and each display's settings can be changed from its cog () menu.

Installing Apps

elementary OS comes with AppCenter, an app store for open source pay-what-you want apps. Installing a new app from AppCenter is easy:

  1. Open the AppCenter app.
  2. Search in the top-right, or browse by category.
  3. Select Free or the suggested price next to the app you want to install. To choose a different price, select the button and select or enter your own price.

You may be asked for your password prior to installing an app.

Note: Some software may not be available from AppCenter. As of elementary OS 5.1 Hera, you can also sideload Flatpak apps from third-party .flatpakref files.

Updating

AppCenter includes updates for apps and the operating system itself under the Installed tab. Remember to install updates frequently to get the latest features, fixes, and security improvements. For more information related to security patches, read the Ubuntu security notices.

System Settings

elementary OS comes with the "System Settings" app that helps you manage settings and preferences for your device. System Settings gives you the ability to adjust things like keyboard shortcuts, display resolution, your wallpaper, and more.

System Settings

You can quickly find settings you are looking for by typing keywords in the search bar at the top of the window. The contents of the System Settings window will filter down to match your search.

App Settings

Keep in mind that System Settings only deals with the global preferences for elementary OS. Although some apps may also have their own preferences, you will not find them here. Instead, look for them inside the app in question.