Richtlinien zur Benutzeroberfläche

These guidelines are designed to help developers and designers create a beautifully consistent experience on the elementary OS desktop. They were written for interface designers, graphic artists and software developers who will be working on elementary OS. They will not only define specific design elements and principles, but will also instill a philosophy that will help you decide when it is appropriate to deviate from the Guidelines. Adhering to the suggestions contained here will provide many benefits:

Um dir zu helfen diese Ziele zu erreichen enthalten die Richtlinien Informationen zu grundlegenden Interface Elementen, wie man diese verwendet und zusammensetzt , und wie du deine Applikation am besten in den Desktop integrierst. Vergiss nicht, diesen Richtlinien zu folgen sie machen es nicht schwerer, sondern leichter eine neue Applikation zu entwickeln.

Aber behalte auch im Hinterkopf, dass du einen Leitfaden vor dir hast, und kein Regelbuch. Neue großartige Interaktionsparadigmen erscheinen jeden Tag und viele weitere warten darauf entdeckt zu werden. Das hier ist ein lebendiges Dokument welches verändert werden kann und wird.

Für Abschnitte die noch nicht geschrieben wurden beziehe dich bitte auf Die GNOME HIG

Design-Philosophie

The elementary OS HIG isn't just about a set of concrete rules; it's meant to be flexible and extensible. As such, this very first portion of the guideline is all about the guiding philosophy we employ. For a quick crash course, we like "The User is Drunk":

Was Design nicht ist

Before we get into all the things that make up elementary OS apps, there is a clarification that needs to be made. We need to understand what exactly design is about, but more importantly we want to smash two major myths:

  1. Design fügt man nicht einfach einem fertigen Produkt hinzu. Ob du es wahrnimmst oder nicht, du designt immer etwas, das du erschaffst. Es ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Erschaffens. Design ist nicht nur, wie etwas aussieht. Es sind nicht nur Farben und Schriftarten. Design ist, wie es funktioniert. Wenn du sich entscheidest einen Knopf hinzuzufügen, der etwas tut, dann ist das Design. Du hast dich entschieden einen Knopf mit einem Icon oder Label hinzuzufügen. Du hast entschieden wo und wie groß er sein soll und du hast eine Farbe ausgesucht. Entscheidungen sind Design.

  2. Design ist nicht nur Geschmackssache. Design kann man testen. Es gibt Designs, die für eine Sache besser geeignet sind als andere. Nehmen wir beispielsweise Fahrräder: Ein Klapprad wurde aus anderen Gründen als ein Mountain Bike konzipiert. Dinge wie Gewicht und Größe sind wichtige Faktoren, um sinnvoll für den Nutzer zu sein. Da wir verstehen, dass Design dafür benutzt wird, um Probleme zu lösen, können wir auch objektiv die Effektivität zweier Designs erkennen und lösen.

  1. Design ist kein Anstrich, Aral Balkan
  2. Design ist nicht subjektiv, Jeff Law

Prägnanz

Arbeite stets daran, deine Anwendung verständlich zu gestalten. Die Hauptfunktion deiner Anwendung sollte sofort ersichtlich sein. Du kannst dies auf verschiedene Weise erreichen, aber am Besten ist es, den Grundsatz der Prägnanz zu verwenden.

Vermeide das Überladen mit Funktionen

Oft ist die Versuchung groß, einer Anwendung immer mehr Features hinzuzufügen. Allerdings ist es wichtig einzusehen, dass jedes neue Feature seinen Preis hat. Genauer gesagt, immer wenn du ein neues Feature hinzufügst...

Denke in Modulen

Build small, modular apps that communicate well. elementary OS apps avoid feature overlap and make their functions available to other apps either through Contractor or over D-Bus. This both saves you time as a developer (by other apps making their functions available to you), and is a courteous gesture towards other developers (by making your app's functions available to them).

Vermeide Konfiguration

Wenn möglich, vermeide das Anzeigen jeglicher Einstellungen in deiner App. Durch das Anbieten von Einstellungen ist es meist einfach, Entscheidungen über das Design und das Verhalten einer App aus dem Weg zu gehen. Aber genau wie beim Überladen mit Funktionen bedeuten Einstellungen mehr Quelltext, mehr Bugs, mehr Testen, mehr Dokumentation und mehr Komplexität.

Build for the "Out of The Box" Experience

Design with sane defaults in mind. elementary OS apps put strong emphasis on the out of the box experience. If your app has to be configured before a user is comfortable using it, they may not take the time to configure it at all and simply use another app instead.

Frag' das Betriebssystem

Erhalte so viele Informationen wie möglich automatisch. Bevor du einen Nutzer nach seinem Namen oder Aufenthaltsort fragst, frag' das System danach. Dies nimmt dem Nutzer Arbeit ab und lässt deine App intelligent und gut integriert wirken.

Brauchst du es wirklich?

Hinterfrage zuerst. ob die Einstellungen die du hinzufügst wirklich nötig sind und für einen Nutzer Sinn ergeben. Verlange niemals von einem Nutzer, Funktionalitäts- oder Designentscheidungen zu treffen.

Wenn es unbedingt sein muss

Halte alles kontextbezogen. Anstatt Einstellungsmöglichkeiten in einem Konfigurationsmenü zu verstecken, versuche sie zusammen mit den Objekten anzuzeigen, die sie beeinflussen (genau wie in deiner Musiksammlung "Shuffle" und "Repeat" angezeigt werden).

Wenn deine Anwendungen eingerichtet werden müssen, bevor man sie verwenden kann (wie ein Email-Programm), dann zeige dieses Einstelung innerhalb des Hauptfensters wie ein Wilkommensbildschirm. Noch einmal, versichere dich, dass es eine wirklich notwendige Einstellung ist. Das Hinzufügen unnötiger Einstellungsfenster hält Nutzer davon ab das zu machen, was sie machen wolen, wenn sie deine Anwendung das erste Mal öffnen.


Siehe auch:

  1. Checkboxen die dein Produkt zerstören von Alex Limi
  2. Höre auf Deinen Nutzern Drecksarbeit aufzuerlegen by Zach Holman
  3. Der Zauberer Anti-Muster von Stef Walter

Minimale Dokumentation

Die meisten Nutzer möchten keine Anleitung lesen, bevor sie Ihre Anwendung benutzen können. Statt dessen erwarten sie, dass Ihre Anwendung intiutiv und ohne Hilfe einfach zu verstehen ist.

Schreibe verständlich

Avoid technical jargon and assume little-to-no technical knowledge. This lets your app be "self-documenting."

Liefere nicht-technische Beschreibungen anstelle von kryptischen Fehlermeldungen. Eine vereinfachte Beschreibung, was passiert ist und wie man es behebt soll präsentiert werden, wenn etwas schief geht.


Für weitere Informationen siehe Schreibstil

Arbeitsablauf für den Nutzer

Sichtbares Design ist ein großer Teil unseres Benutzer-Erlebnisses, aber auch der Workflow der Nutzer, oder wie diese mit den Anwendungen interagieren. In diesem Abschnitt behandeln wir ein paar wichtige Schritte eines typischen Workflows:

Erststart Erfahrung

Benötigte Konfiguration

When a user first launches an app, they should be able to get down to business as quickly as possible. If configuration is not absolutely required for the first use, they should not be required to configure anything. If configuration is required, they should be presented with a clean and simple welcome screen within the app. Avoid separate configuration dialogs when launching.

Startgeschwindigkeit

Der erste Start Deiner App prägt beim Nutzer den ersten Eindruck. Hier ist die Chance, Design und Geschwindigkeit der App ins rechte Licht zu rücken. Wenn sich die App vor dem Erscheinen auf dem Bildschirm noch im Hintergrund konfiguriert, erhält der Nutzer den Eindruck, dass sie langsam läuft oder lange Zeit zum Starten braucht. Sorge deshalb dafür, dass das Appfenster schnell erscheint und bereit zur Nutzung ist, und lasse dann Konfigurationsarbeiten im Hintergrund laufen. Wenn solche Hintergrundarbeiten das Nutzen von bestimmten Funktionen blockieren, zeige eine Information über laufende Hintergrundprozesse an und deaktiviere die entsprechenden Oberflächenelemente (siehe Widgetkonzepte)

Benutzer Willkommen heißen

If there is no content to show the user, provide actions they can act upon by using a simple welcome screen. Let them open a document, add an account, import a CD, or whatever makes sense in the context of the app.

Die Anwendung zurücksetzen

If a user explicitly "resets" the app (ex. by deleting all songs in a music library or removing all mail accounts in a mail client), it should return to its first-launch state.

Normaler Start

Wenn der Nutzer eine App startet, tut sie das ausdrücklich und erwartet eine schnelle, meist sofortige Reaktion. Für den Start einer App solltest Du drei Schlüsselaspekte im Auge behalten: Geschwindigkeit, klare Hinweise auf die nächsten Schritte und aktueller Status der App.

Geschwindigkeit

Wie schon erwähnt ist Geschwindigkeit, besonders beim Starten einer App, sehr wichtig. Es sollte so wenig wie möglich Zeit vergehen zwischen der Entscheidung der Nutzerin, eine App zu starten und dem Moment, in dem die App benutzbar ist. Wenn deine App einen splash screen braucht, machst du etwas falsch.

Offensichtlichkeit

When a user launches your app, they should know exactly what to do next. This is achieved by following the other interface guidelines (ensuring your app is consistent with other apps) and by offering up explicit actions from the get go. If the app typically displays "items," such as songs or emails, let the user get at those items by displaying them when the app opens. If there are no previously-opened items, you should offer to open or create a new item (such as a document) by using a welcome screen.

Zustand

Wenn der Nutzer deine App schon einmal benutzt hab, ist es häufig das Beste, den Stand der Dinge beim erneuten Starten wiederherzustellen. Das heißt, die App startet mit genau demselben Zustand, den der Nutzer beim letzten Schließen hinterlassen hat, sodass er sofort weiterarbeiten kann. Ein Musikplayer startet dann in der Ansicht, die beim letzten Beenden aktiv war und mit dem zuletzt abgespielten, nunmehr pausierten Song. Ein Dokumenteditor startet dann mit demselben Dokument zeigt dieselbe Stelle im Dokument an und setzt den Cursor an dieselbe Stelle wie beim letzten Schließen der App.

Always Provide an Undo

Sometimes a user will perform an action which could possibly be destructive or traditionally irreversible. Rather than present the user with a warning, apps should let the user undo the action for an appropriate amount of time. Some prime examples of when this behavior is useful are:

This behavior should only as a last resort be implemented by providing a buffer time between when the app shows the user what happened and actually performing the action. To keep the experience responsive, the app should always look as if it performed the action as soon as the user initiates it.

Dieses Verhalten erreicht die beste Balance zwischen einem unterbrechungsfreien Arbeiten des Nutzers und der Verhinderung vom Nutzer ungewollter Aktionen. Es ist wichtig, die Rückgängig-Funktion unaufdringlich und intuitiv zu halten. Üblicherweise wird dazu eine Infoleiste verwendet, wobei auch andere Methoden auch hilfreich sein können.


Siehe auch: Benutze niemals eine Warnung wenn du Rückgängig meinst von Aza Raskin

Immer gespeichert

Users should feel confident when using elementary OS; they should know that everything they see is saved and up to date.

Apps in elementary OS should operate around an always-saved state. This means that changes the user makes are instantly applied and visible and that making the user manually save things is a legacy or specialized behavior.

Zum Beispiel sollte ein Lied-Infodialog die Stückinformationen sofort aktualisieren, ohne das der Nutzer eine Taste drücken muss, Nutzereinstellungen sollten angewendet werden, sobald der Nutzer das relevante Widget ändert und Schließen einer Anwendung sollte voraussetzen, dass erneutes Öffnen die Anwendung so zurückbringt, wie sie vor dem Schließen verlassen wurde.

Schließen

Wenn ein Nutzer eine Anwendung schließt, ist dies typischer Weise, weil er sie im Moment nicht mehr benötigt und sie aus seinem Weg haben möchte.

Den aktuellen Zustand speichern

Apps sollten ihren aktuellen Zustand beim Schließen speichern, sodass sie beim nächsten Öffnen genau so erscheinen, wie sie der Nutzer verlassen hat. Idealerweise sollte das Schließen und erneute Öffnen einer App nicht vom Minimieren und Maximieren des Fensters unterscheidbar sein. Das heißt, alle Elemente sollten gespeichert werden - einschließlich offener Dokumente, der Scrollposition, der Schritte der Rückgängigfunktion usw.

Hintergrund Anwendungen

Wenn es für eine App sinnvoll ist, Hintergrundaufgaben zu Ende zu bringen, nachdem das Fenster geschlossen wurde, sollen diese Prozesse bald nach Schließen des Fensters beendet sein. Wenn die App wiederholt Hintergrundaufgaben ausführt (wie z.B. bei einem Emailprogramm), sollten die Hintergrundaufgaben von einem separatem Dämon ausgeführt werden, der von der App selbst unabhängig ist.

Programmfenster wird geschlossen

It is not desirable for an app window to simply minimize rather than close when the user attempts to close it. Instead, the app window should be "hidden". If it makes sense to continue a process in the background (such as downloading/transferring, playing music, or executing a terminal command) the app backend should continue with the task and close when the task is finished. If it's not immediately apparent that the process has completed (as with the file download/transfer or terminal command), the app may show a notification informing the user that the process has completed. If it is apparent, as with the music, no notification is necessary.

Programmfenster wird wieder geöffnet

Wenn der Nutzer die App wieder öffnet, während der Hintergrundprozess noch läuft, sollte die App genau dort sein, wo sie wäre, wenn das Fenster die ganze Zeit über offen gewesen wäre. Ein Terminalfenster zum Beispiel sollte den gesamten Output zeigen, der Musikplayer sollte an derselben Stelle sein wie beim Schließen und der Browser sollte dieselbe Seite wie vorher zeigen. Für mehr Details siehe die Erörterung des Status einer App bei einem Normalen Start.


Sehen Sie auch: "That's It, We're Quitting" von by Matthew Paul Thomas

Desktop Integrierung

An important advantage that developers have when choosing the elementary OS platform is the ability to seamlessly integrate their application with the default desktop. Outlined below are the several ways in which you can make your application feel beyond native in elementary OS. This section will cover things like:

Anwendungsstarter

Der grundlegende Weg deine Anwendung aufzufinden und zu benutzen ist ein Anwendungsstarter in Slingshot oder im Dock. Um so einen Anwendungsstarter bereitzustellen musst du eine entsprechende .desktop-Datei zusammen mit deiner Anwendung installieren. Diese muss dem Starter einen entsprechenden Namen geben, ihm die richtige Kategorie und ein Symbol zuordnen usw.

.desktop Dateien richten sich nach der freedesktop.org Desktop Entry Spezifikation. Diese sollten in /usr/share/applications installiert werden. Anwender können ihre eigenen Startprogramme erstellen indem sie .desktop Dateien unter ~/.local/share/applications ablegen.

Der Inhalt von .desktop Dateien sollte nach dieser Vorlage gehen:

Titel ist ein(e) GenerischerName dass Ihnen erlaubt Kommentar.

Titel

You should not include descriptive words in your title. For example, Dexter is called "Dexter," not "Dexter Address Book." Midori is just "Midori," not "Midori Web Browser." Instead, use the GenericName attribute of your app's .desktop file for a generic name, and the Comment attribute for a longer descriptive phrase.

Generischer Name

If your app is easily categorized or described with a generic name, you should use that for the GenericName attribute in your app's .desktop file. If you can say, "My app is a(n) ____," then whatever fits in that blank could be the generic name. For example, Maya is a calendar, so its generic name is "Calendar."

You should not include articles (the, a, an) or the words "program," "app," or "application" in your app's generic name.

The generic name should be in title case and may be used around the system to better describe or categorize your app.

Kommentar

The system uses an app's Comment attribute (found in the .desktop file) to succinctly inform a user what can be done with the app. It should be a short sentence or phrase beginning with a verb and containing the primary nouns that your app deals with. For example, the following are appropriate comments:

An app's comment should be in sentence case, not include terminal punctuation (periods, exclamation points, or question marks), and should be as short as possible while describing the primary use case of the app.

Kategorien

Die folgenden Kategorien können bei der Suche nach Ihrer App helfen

Für weitere Infos, siehe den Menü Eintrag spec auf FreeDesktop.Org .

Schlüsselwörter

You may also include keywords in your launcher to help users find your app via search. These follow the convention of "X-GNOME-Keywords" (for in the app launcher) and "X-AppInstall-Keywords" (for in the app installer). For example, web browser might include "Internet" as a keyword even though it's not in the app's name, generic name, or description. As a result, a user searching for "Internet" will find the app. Here are some more examples:

Keywords should be single words (in title case) separated by semicolons.


Siehe auch: Desktop Entry Spezifikation von FreeDesktop.org

Contractor

Contractor is a service and a protocol for exposing services easily between apps. It lets apps interact with other apps and services without hardcoded support for them. You simply add Contractor support, and then any service registered with Contractor is now available for your app to use. Your app can integrate with Contractor in two different ways:

Ergebnisse von Contractor darstellen

Contractor results are typically presented to users in menu form. Keep the following in mind when presenting Contractor results:

Dock Integration

Integrate your app with Pantheon's dock communicate to communicate its status to the user at a glance.

Fortschrittsbalken

Make progress bars unambiguous by referring to a single, specific task. For example, use progress bars to indicate the status of lengthy processes like file transfers and encoding. Do not use progress bars to compound the progress of different types of action.

Abzeichen

A badge shows a count of actionable items managed by your app. Its purpose is to inform the user that there are items that require user attention or action without being obtrusive. This is a passive notification. A badge should not show totals or rarely changing counters. If the badge is not easily dismissed when the user views your app, it is likely that this is not a good use of a badge.

Systembenachrichtigungen

Indikatoren sind kleine Icons, die sich auf dem obersten Panel befinden. Sie geben dem Nutzer die Möglichkeit, schnell grundlegende Informationen über verschiedene Einstellungen oder Events zu erhalten. Bei einem Klick wird dem Nutzer ein kleines Menü, mit passenden Aktionen angezeigt.

Does Your App Need an Indicator?

The indicator area is prone to clutter and inconsistent paradigms. Given that users will probably install many third-party apps, we must be careful about the number of indicators we show and how they behave. Keep in mind that only a very small set of applications need or benefit from an indicator. Avoid adding an indicator if:


See also: Farewell to the Notification Area by Matthew Paul Thomas

Container Widgets

Fenster

Windows form the foundation of your app. They provide a canvas with basic, built-in actions such as "closing" and "resizing". Although users may see windows as being all the same, elementary OS has several distinct window types. It's important to understand the types of windows available to you, window behavior in general, and behavior that is specific to a certain window type. This section will cover the different types of windows available in elementary OS. Although each type of window is a bit different, think of them all as a subclass of a window. Unless otherwise stated, they all behave as an average window.

Fenstertitel

When dealing with window titles, consider that their main use is in distinguishing one window from another. A good window title will provide a description that helps a user make a selection. Keep that in mind as you consider the following:

Dialoge

24
Dialog warning icon

Primary text providing basic information and a suggestion

Secondary text providing further details. Also includes information that explains any unobvious consequences of actions.

24
Abbrechen
Suggested Action

Warn Text

Ein Alarm enthält sowohl primären als auch sekundären Text.

The primary text contains a brief summary of the situation and offer a suggested action. This text should use the CSS class primary.

The secondary text provides a more detailed description of the situation and describes any possible side effects of the available actions. It's important to note that a user should only need the primary text to make a decision and should only need to refer to the secondary text for clarification. This text should be placed one text line height beneath the primary text using the default font size and weight.

Make both the primary and secondary text selectable. This makes it easy for the user to copy and paste the text to another window, such as an email message.

Button Reihenfolge

"OK" is not Okay

When presenting a dialog to a user, always use explicit action names like "Save..." or "Shut Down". Consider how "OK" lets users proceed without understanding the action they are authorizing. Not all users will read the question or information presented to them in a dialog. Using specific action names will make it harder for a user to select an unintended action and may even encourage them to read the presented information before making a selection.

Einstellung Dialog

Preference dialogs should be made Transient, but not Modal. When a user makes a change in a preference dialog, the change should be immediately visible in the UI. If the dialog is modal, the user may be blocked from seeing (and especially from interacting with) the change. This means they will have to close the dialog, evaluate the change, then possibly re-open the dialog. By making the dialog transient, we keep the dialog on top for easy access, but we also let the user evaluate and possibly revert the change without having to close and re-open the preference dialog.


Siehe auch:

  1. Why 'Ok' Buttons In Dialog Boxes Work Best On The Right by UX Movement
  2. Why The Ok Button Is No Longer Okay by UX Movement
  3. Should I use Yes/No or Ok/Cancel on my message box? on UX StackExchange
  4. Where to Place Icons Next to Button Labels by UX Movement

Popovers

Popovers are like a contextual dialog. They display transient content directly related to something that was clicked on and close when clicked out of, like menus.

A popover should be used when a user wants to perform a quick action without getting out of the main UI. Some examples of where a popover could be used are adding a contact from an email, adding a bookmark in a browser, or displaying downloads or file transfers.

Popovers should not be used when displaying only a simple list of items; instead, use a menu. Likewise, don't use a popover if the user would spend more than a few seconds in it; instead, use a dialog. Remember that popovers are contextual and should directly relate to the UI element from which they spawn.

Symbolleiste

A Toolbar is useful for providing users with quick access to an app's most used features. Besides Buttons, a Toolbar is one of the most frequently used UI elements. It may seem like a simple container, but it is important to remain consistent in its use and organization.

Sortiere Symbolleisten Symbole

Toolbar items should be organized with the most significant objects on the left and the least significant on the right, with the AppMenu always on the far right of the Toolbar. If you have many toolbar items it may be appropriate to divide them into groups with space in between each group. Keep in mind that when viewed with RTL languages, your toolbar layout will be flipped.

UI Toolkit Elemente

elementary OS uses consistent user interface (UI) elements to bring a unified and predictable experience to users, no matter what app they're using. When used properly, this ensures a small (or nonexistent) learning curve for your app.

Widget Konzepte

Before we get into all the widgets available in elementary OS, we need to cover some basic concepts that apply to all widgets. Employing these concepts correctly will create a more seamless experience for your users and help you avoid sifting through bug reports!

Bedienelemente ohne Funktion

A very common mistake for developers to make is creating controls that seemingly do nothing. Keep in mind that we want to present an environment where users feel comfortable exploring. A curious user will interact with a control expecting there to be some immediate reaction. When a control seemingly does nothing, this creates confusion and can be scary (Think,  "uh-oh I don't know what happened!"). In some cases, controls that do nothing are simply clutter and add unnecessary complexity to your UI.

Consider the "clear" button present in search fields. This button only appears when it is relevant and needed. Clicking this button when the field is already clear essentially does nothing. 

Empfindlichkeit

Sometimes it doesn't make sense for a user to interact with a widget until some pre-requisite is fulfilled. For example, It doesn't make sense to let a user click a browser's "Forward" button unless there is forward history available. In this case, you should make the "Forward" button insensitive or a user may click it, expecting a result, and be confused when nothing happens.

It's usually better to make a widget insensitive than to hide it altogether. Making a widget insensitive informs the user that the functionality is available, but only after a certain condition is met. Hiding the widget gives the impression that the functionality is not available at all or can leave a user wondering why a feature has suddenly "disappeared".

Versteckte Widgets

When a widget only makes sense in a certain context (not as an indicator of an action to be performed) sometimes it does make more sense to hide it. Take hardware requirements for example: It may not make sense to show multi-display options if the system only has a single display. Making multi-display options insensitive is not really a helpful hint on this system. Another exemption to this rule is a widget that a user will only look for in context, like the clear button example above. Finally, Keep in mind that insensitive items will still be recognized by screen readers and other assistive tech, while hidden widgets will not.

Spacing

Ausrichtung


See also: Form Label Proximity: Right Aligned is Easier to Scan by UX Movement

Infoleisten

Infobars provide contextual information and actions to the user with varying levels of severity.

It is important to determine the severity or type of infobar to use. There are four types of infobars available:

Willkommens Bildschirm

Der Wilkommens Bildschirm ist ein netter Weg, dem Nutzer beim einrichten ihrer Anwendung, zu helfen.

Nutzung

Typically a Welcome Screen is used for apps like Noise or Scratch where you have to import or create objects in a library before you can interact with them. This provides your users with a clear path to getting started and points out any immediate steps they must take before your app becomes useful.

If your app lets users clear its library, make sure that it returns to the Welcome Screen instead of an empty list.

Beschriftung

The Welcome Screen consists of two sets of labels:

Ikonographie

Grouped with each action is an icon that helps to quickly visualize it. Most of the time these will be Action icons, but you can use Places icons when importing or setting a location and even Apps icons if you must open a configuration utility.

Quellenliste

A source list may be used as a high-level form of navigation. Source lists are useful for showing different locations, bookmarks, or categories within your app.

Auswahl

A source list may be separated into different collapsible sections, each with its own heading. For example, a file manager might have a section for bookmarked locations, a section for storage devices attached to the computer, and a section for network locations. These sections help group related items in the source list and lets the user hide away sections they might not use.

Avoid nesting expandable sections within a source list if possible; if you find yourself wanting to do this, you may need to rethink the sections.

Hierarchie

Hierarchy is important with source lists, both within the widget itself and within the broader scope of your app.

Sections in the source list should be sorted from most important at the top to least important at the bottom. If you're having a hard time deciding the relative importance of each section, think about which section a user is likely to use more often. Sorting the sections this way ensures that the most important items are always visible, even if the source list is too short to fit all of the items, though of course items at the bottom will still be accessible via scrolling.

A source list goes at the left side of a window (or right side for right-to-left languages). Because the user reads in this direction, the sidebar is reinforced as being before (and therefore at a higher level than) the app's contents.

Knöpfe

Buttons are an incredibly important widget to understand since your app will undoubtedly contain them.

Tool Buttons

Beschriftung

Tool Buttons are almost always icon-only and do not provide a button border. They should not be accompanied by a label.

Tooltips

All Tool Buttons should have tooltips, since they do not contain a label. This assists users with disabilities as well as giving a translation for an unrecognized icon. Tooltips should be done in Sentence Case.

Like text button labels, a tooltip should clearly describe what will happen when the button is pressed.

Text Knöpfe

Beschriftung

Text Knöpfe sollten in Titelfeldern verwendet werden.

Like menu items, Text Button labels should consist of an Action or a Location but not a status. Make sure that a button's label clearly describes what will happen when it is pressed.

"Remove Account", "Transfer to Jim's Laptop", and "Import 20 Songs" are good labels.

"OK", "Get more storage!", and "Low Battery" are not good button labels. The "Get more storage!" label has incorrect capitalization and unnecessary punctuation. The other two labels do not indicate what will happen as a result of clicking the button.

Tooltips

Since Text buttons have a clear and explicit label, it's usually unnecessary to give them a tooltip.

Linked Buttons

Nutzung

Linked Buttons are used to group actions that are either similar in nature or mutually exclusive. For example, they could group text options like Bold, Italic, and Underline. Or they can be used to group mutually exclusive states like Grid, List, or Column view.

Beschriftung

Linked Buttons should never contain colored icons. Only 16px symbolic icons OR text. Do not mix icons and text.


  1. Why The OK Button Is No Longer Okay by UX Movement
  2. Should I use Yes/No or Ok/Cancel on my message box? on UX StackExchange

App Menu

The AppMenu is an optional menu which is opened using the gear-shaped icon on the far-right of an app's toolbar. It provides relevant menu items in place of the traditional "File, Edit, View..." menu bar.

Nutzung

You should first consider if your app needs this widget. While most apps may have one, your app may not necessarily need an AppMenu.

Wenn du Symbole im AppMenu hinzufügst, berücksichtige folgendes:

Suchfelder

Apps that support the searching or filtering of content should include a search field on the right side of the app's toolbar. This gives users a predictable place to see whether or not an app supports searching, and a consistent location from which to search. Gtk+ provides a convenient complex widget for this purpose called Gtk.SearchEntry.

Distinguish Between Search and Find

Search is for filtering the contents of a library, i.e. Music or Videos, to the matching items. Search is typically initiated when typing anywhere in a library view.

Find is for highlighting matching instances of a string, i.e. in a text editor, web page, or Terminal. It is triggered by a keyboard shortcut (Ctrl+F) or with a search icon. The find bar appears in a revealer below the headerbar with relevant actions such as find next, find previous, highlight all, etc. The revealer may also contain other relevant actions such as replace or go to line.

Verhalten

If it is possible to include search functionality within your app, it is best to do so. Any list or representation of multiple pieces of data should be searchable using a search field that follows these rules:

Beschriftung

Search fields should contain hint text that describes what will be search. You can set this using the entry property "placeholder_text".

Most search fields should use the format "Search OBJECTS" where OBJECTS is something to be searched, like Contacts, Accounts, etc.

If the search field interacts with a search service, the hint text should be the name of that service such as "Google" or "Yahoo!"

Checkboxes & Switches

Checkboxes

Checkboxes present a way for users to select items from a list.

Nutzung

Use checkboxes when users are making a selection of items. Make sure that a user can toggle the state of the checkbox by clicking on the label associated with the checkbox.

Beschriftung

Labels associated with Checkboxes should usually be nouns or nounal phrases.

Schalter

Switches present a way for users to toggle certain features or behaviors "on" or "off".

Nutzung

Don't use switches to include related items as part of a list, instead use a checkbox. Think of switches as acting on independent services and checkboxes as including objects in a list. This is an important distinction to make.

Notice that the option "Record from microphone" is a great candidate for a switch. You are enabling and disabling this recording service.

However, if there are two options "Record system sounds" and "Record from microphone" you are now dealing with a list of related items to include as part of a larger recording service (who's on and off state is independent of what services it includes). In this case, a checkbox is more appropriate to denote this inclusion.

Beschriftung

When possible, directly call out the service you are acting on. Do not use words that describe the state that the widget is describing like "Enable Multitouch", "Use Multitouch", or "Disable Multitouch". This can create a confusing situation logically. Instead, simply use the noun and write "Multitouch".


See also: 3 Ways to Make Checkboxes, Radio Buttons Easier to Click by UX Movement

Notebooks

Notebooks are a type of widget that lets apps show one of multiple pages (also colloquially referenced as "tab bars").

Static Notebook

A Static Notebook is a small set of unchanging tabs, commonly seen in preferences or settings screens. The tabs appear as linked buttons centered at the top of the content area. A Static Notebook should typically contain two to five tabs.

Dynamic Notebook

A Dynamic Notebook is a way for an app to provide user-managable tabbing functionality, commonly seen in web browsers. The tabs appear attached to the toolbar on their own tab bar above the relevant content. Tabs are able to be rearranged and closed and a "new tab" button is at the left ot the notebook widget.

Ikonographie

Iconography is a key part of elementary OS. Icons make up the majority of the UI that your user will be actively engaging with; they're what bring the system to life and cater to the powerful recognition engine of the human brain.

Shape

Your icon should have a distinctive shape/silhouette to improve its recognition. This shape should not be too complicated, but the icon should not always be a rounded rectangle.

Warning dialog iconChat iconPhotos iconVideos iconOnline accounts iconTerminal icon

Metaphors

If you're creating an icon for a hardware device or a file type (such as those for MimeType or Device icons), its shape is typically a visual representation of its real-world counterparts. For example, the icon for a camera is a stylized camera.

KamerasymbolFestplattensymbolMaussymbolPaketsymbolHTML Text iconComputersymbol

Action Icons

Action icons are used to represent common user actions, such as "delete", "play", or "save". These icons are mostly found in app toolbars, but can be found throughout the OS.

Vorheriges SymbolNächstes SymbolDocument export iconPrint iconSave iconLöschsymbolAusschneidensymbolUndo iconInverse iconWiedergabesymbolNew tag iconMenüsymbol

If your app makes use one of these common actions, reference its corresponding icon instead of creating your own. This ensures a consistent user experience and aids in user recognition of common functions.

If your app has a unique action, you may need to create your own. When doing this, try to follow the look and feel of existing action icons, and include it along with your app.

Symbolgrößen

elementary OS uses six main icon sizes throughout the OS and it's best to include all six as part of your application.

16 pixel Terminal icon24 pixel Terminal icon32 pixel Terminal icon48 pixel Terminal icon64 pixel Terminal icon128 pixel Terminal icon
16 24 32 48 64 128
128 pixel Terminal icon
128

Design each icon for the size it's meant to be viewed at. In other words, do not design one icon and resize it to fill the remaining sizes, the best result is when each icon is designed individually. For more information about this practice (called "pixel-fitting") and its importance, we recommend reading Dustin Curtis' article, Pixel-fitting.

Farbpalette

Color, don't be afraid to use it! Many of the elementary OS icons use vibrant colors; it's best to reserve muted tones and greys for boring system icons.

Mail iconRSS Reader iconWebbrowsersymbolPhotos iconNetzwerksymbolKalendersymbol

Colors do have their connotations, so be cognisant of this when picking them. For instance: red is usually associated with error or "danger" and orange with warnings. But you can use these color connotations to help convey your icon's meaning, such as green for "go".

Symbolic Icons

Symbolic icons are common system icons, that symbolize files, devices, or directories and are also used to represent common actions like cut, copy, and save.

Each symbolic icon is a reduced form of its full-color counter part. This minimal design ensures readability and clarity even at small sizes.

Symbolic vs. colored icon

Colored vs. Symbolic Icons

The use of full-color and symbolic icons is not interchangeable, both have appropriate uses.

Full color icons are best used for:

Symbolic icons are best used:

Composition

There are three aspects to note when designing an elementary OS icon:

Composition breakdown of elementary OS Videos icon Composition breakdown of elementary OS Terminal icon

Keeping these lines in mind while designing, means you can place elements along them so icons appear more consistent when put together. For example, notice how some elements in both the Terminal and Videos icon above relate to the mean line.

Common Measurements

If you're designing a square-shaped icon, like the one for Terminal seen above, then consider using these common measurements (in pixels) for each icon.

Canvas Size Base Line x-Höhe Mean Line Height
16x16 1 14 8
24x24 2 20 12
32x32 2 26 16
48x48 3 40 24
64x64 4 56 32
128x128 9 104 64

Ausnahmen

However there are exceptions. Many icons (especially mimetype icons) have ascending and descending elements, which are those elements that extend beyond the base line and x-height line (shown here in orange.)

Composition exception example in elementary OS Video icon Composition exception example in elementary OS Terminal icon

Rounder components will generally require some overshoot, to compensate for the optical illusion that makes them look smaller than their rectangular counterparts.

Outlines & Contrast

All elementary OS icons have a thin outline (stroke) to improve their contrast. The width of this stroke is one pixel for all icons, at every size. The color of the outline is a darker variant (30% darker) of the primary color of the icon. For instance, in the calendar icon below, the green header has a stroke of a darker green.

Example of contrast in elementary OS Calendar icon Example of contrast in elementary Settings icon

To further improve contrast, strokes are also semi-transparent. This ensures that icons appear sharp against a variety of backgrounds. Also, if the element is near-white, this stroke acts as a border and contains, rather than overlaps, its corresponding element. See the above icon for an example of this.

Shadows & Highlights

If you picture an icon sitting on a shelf, facing you, with a light source above it, you may see a small fuzzy shadow near the bottom. Also, since the edges of an object tends to reflect more light due to your position relative to it and to the light source, they will have a highlight. Both these effects are something elementary OS icons emulate in their design to lend them a degree of realism.

Edge Highlight

To apply the edge highlight effect to your icon, draw a subtle, 1 pixel, inner stroke as a highlight. This outline is slightly brighter at the top and the bottom than it is at the edges.

Edge highlight example in elementary OS Music icon

Drop Shadow

To draw the shadow, you'll start by drawing a rectangle. Then fill it with a linear gradient that is perpendicular to the bottom margin of the icon. The gradient has three stops, the first and last of which have zero opacity. Then this entire shape is set to 60% opacity.

Next create two smaller rectangles to "bookend" the larger. Fill each with a gradient identical to the first, but make it radial instead. Center the radial gradient in the middle of a short edge with each stop directly out to the nearest edge—see below for an example. Both these rectangles are also set to 60% opacity.

Pictogram Shadow

If your icon has a pictogram, such as the play triangle in the icon below, you can give it a drop shadow to make it stand out from the background of the icon.

To do this, first duplicate the pictogram, fill it with solid black and set it to 15% opacity. Next, shift it 1 pixel down and place it below the pictogram. Create a copy of this shadow and give it a 1 pixel stroke (also black) and adjust this element to 7% opacity.

Icon Materials

You are free to add gloss (extra highlights) to your icon but this is only a good idea if you're emulating a surface that is more-reflective in real life (such as plastic, glass, etc.) For instance, a sheet of paper is not glossy therefore a icon emulating paper would not be either.

Dos and Don'ts

Below are some "do and don't" examples to consider when creating icons for your app.

Text

Although elementary OS primarily uses graphics as a means of interaction, text is also widely used for things like button labels, tooltips, menu items, dialog messages, and more. Using text consistently and clearly both in terminology and format is an extremely important part of designing your app and helps add to the overall cohesiveness of the elementary OS platform.

Schreibstil

Use the following rules to keep your text understandable and consistent:

Be Brief

Don't give the user a bunch of text to read; a lengthy sentence can appear daunting and may discourage users from actually reading your messaging. Instead, provide the user with short and concise text.

Denke einfach

Assume the user is intelligent, but not technical. Avoid long, uncommon words and focus on using common, simple verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Never use technical jargon.

Gehe zur letzten Zeile

Put the most important information at the beginning of your text. If the user stops reading, they'll still have what they need in mind.

Wiederhole dich nicht

Wiederholungen können störend sein und die Nachricht unnötig in die Länge ziehen.

Nutze optische Abstufungen

Optische Abstufungen helfen Nutzern beim lesen und verstehen deines Textes, aber auch beim erkennen der wichtigsten Informationen. Nutze Überschriften und andere geeignete Textgestaltungen.

Sprache

While much of elementary OS is developed in English, there are many users who do not know English or prefer their native language. While putting text into your app, keep the following in mind:

Groß- und Kleinschreibung

Alle textlichen Benutzeroberflächenelemente, Beschriftungen, Buttons und Menüs eingeschlossen, sollten mit einer von zwei Großschreibstielen geschrieben werden: Satzschreibweise oder Titelschreibweise.

Satzschreibweise

Satzschreibweise meint, dass du die Groß- und Kleinschreibung wie in einem normalen Satz oder einer Formulierung verwendest.

Nur der erste Buchstabe im Satz und Nomen werden groß geschrieben. Verwendet für Beschriftungen oder beschreibenden Text.

Titelschreibweise

Titelschreibweise meint, dass du die Groß- und Kleinschreibung wie in einem Buchtitel oder Artikeltitel verwendest.

Schreibe das erste und letzte Wort groß. Alle Nomen, Pronomen, Adjektive, Verben, Adverbien und Substantivieren Konjunktionen (So, weil, als auch) werden groß geschrieben. Dies wird für Titel, Button, Menü und die meisten anderen Widgets verwendet.

Hinweis/Ausnahmen

Proper nouns should always be capitalized properly; this means that, for example, Google should always be shown as "Google," elementary should always be shown as "elementary," and MPEG should always be shown as "MPEG." If you're unsure how a certain pronoun should be officially capitalized, refer to the documentation of the pronoun in question.

Zeichensetzung

Richtige Schreibweisen sind bei elementary OS durchgehend wichtig. Nicht nur für eine Beständigkeit im Betriebssystem, sondern auch für ein angemessenes Auftreten und angemessene Präsentation einer seriösen und professionellen Plattform.

Verhindern von üblichen Fehlern

Hyphens & Dashes

Bindestrich (-)

Verwende \u2010 im Code. Anwendungen:

En Dash (–)

Use \u2013 in code. Used for:

Em Dash (—)

Use \u2014 in code. Used for:


If in doubt, refer to Butterwick's Practical Typography.

These rules apply to the English language; other languages may have their own conventions which should be followed by translators.

Verwende Elypsen

The ellipsis character (…) is used in the interface for two primary reasons: informing the user of an additional required information and letting the user know text has been shortened.

Zusätzliche Informationen

An ellipsis should be used to let a user know that more information or a further action is required before their action can be performed. Usually this means that the user should expect a new interface element to appear such as a new window, dialog, toolbar, etc in which they must enter more information or make a selection before completing the intended action. This is an important distinction because a user should typically expect an instant action from buttons and menu items while this prepares them for an alternate behavior. More specifically, an ellipsis should be used when the associated action:

Gekürzter Text

Ellipses should be used when shortening text that cannot fit in any specific place. For example, if a playlist's name is longer than the space available in the sidebar, truncate it and use an ellipsis to signify its truncation. There are two ways to use an ellipsis when shortening text:

If you're unsure, it's best to use middle truncation as it keeps both the beginning and end of the string in tact. It's also important that you do not ship your app with any truncated text; truncation should only be the result of a user action such as resizing a sidebar or entering custom text.

Wann man keine Elipsen nutzen sollte


Be sure to use the actual ellipsis character (…) rather than three consecutive period (.) characters.

Benennen von Menü Symbolen

Menu items should have names that are either actions or locations, never descriptions. Make sure menu items are concise, but also fully describe the action that will be performed when they are clicked.

"Find in Page..." is acceptable as it clearly describes the action that will be performed when the item is clicked. "Software Up to Date" is not acceptable. What happens if I click this item? Where will it take me? What will it do? The outcome is uncertain.